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A Guide To Living With A Stoma More For You


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DISCLAIMER


100% accuracy at time of writing cannot be guaranteed.  A listing in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and does not mean it is an endorsement.  All companies listed are tried at the reader’s own risk.  All information provided is intended as a supplement to any professional help already

given.  Before acting on suggestions from anyone, ostomates are advised to check with a doctor or stoma care nurse that the course of action is suitable

for them. Whilst every care is taken, the author will not be held responsible.

FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TEST


A faecal occult blood test is a test to see whether there is blood in the stool, which is not visible to the naked eye.  A sample of stool is placed on a chemical strip, which will change colour, if blood is present.  Hidden blood in the stool is a common symptom of colorectal cancer.


FAECES


Faeces are the matter discharged from the bowel during bowel movements, and consist mainly of the waste material from food.


FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS


Familial polyposis is a rare, inherited disease in which hundreds of polyps form in the colon and rectum, which can obstruct the bowel.  It has a strong tendency to malignancy.  In order to prevent cancer,

the colon is removed, and usually the rectum (all or the surface layer).


An ileostomy (either conventional or continent), ileorectal anastomosis (ileum to rectum) or ileoanal reservoirs are options.


FIBRE


Fibre is the roughage constituent from indigestible foods.  Daily recommended intake of fibre is 18-30 grams.  Dietary fibres contribute to a healthy diet for people with or without a stoma, but should be used with caution for a person with an ileostomy.


There are two forms of fibre - soluble and insoluble.


Soluble fibre attracts water, and turns to gel during digestion.  This slows digestion, and the rate of nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine is increased.  It is found in barley, beans, lentils, nuts, oat bran, peas, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables.


Insoluble fibre is found in foods such as vegetables, wheat bran and whole grains.  Insoluble fibre speeds the passage of foods through the stomach and intestines, and adds bulk to the stool.


FILTER


A filter is a charcoal vent in an ostomy pouch, which allows gas to escape and be deodorised.  It may

be integrated into the pouch film, e.g. in a closed pouch, or it may be replaceable, e.g. in a

drainable pouch.


FISTULA


A fistula is an abnormal channel or connection between a body cavity or organ to another body cavity

or organ, or to the skin.


FLANGE


A flange is an alternative name for a baseplate or wafer.  This is part of a two-piece stoma appliance with a pre-cut hole, and is placed over the stoma and adheres to the peristomal skin.  The flange will have an attachment system, where the pouch can be secured onto the flange itself.  The flange and

the pouch must match in order to create a secure pouching system.  Using the flange as part of a two-piece system, allows for frequent pouch changing without having to remove the flange.


FLAT FLANGE


The flange on this type of stoma appliance product is not curved or convex.  It may be part of a one-piece or two-piece system.


FLATULENCE


Flatulence is the passing or breaking of wind, caused by excessive gas in the stomach or intestine.  On occasions, it may cause bloating. 


FLUSH STOMA


A flush stoma is where the stoma is flat with the skin level, either circumferential or partially.  A stoma may be flush, because of surgical technique or difficulties (e.g. poor mobilisation of the bowel and/or excessive tension of the suture line at the fascial layer), recurrent malignancy or weight gain.


A flush stoma may cause problems in obtaining and maintaining a secure and leak-proof seal, particularly in the management of an ileostomy or urostomy, due to the liquid nature of the output.  There are a variety of stoma products (e.g. convex flange) available to manage this problem, and

advice should be sought from a stoma care nurse.


FOBT


See Faecal Occult Blood Test.


FOLLICULITIS


Folliculitis is inflammation of the hair follicles.  This can be caused around a stoma by ripping body hair off, when pouches are removed, or by shaving closely with a safety razor.


FREQUENT URINATION


In general, most people urinate about four to eight times a day.  Frequent urination is usually defined as urinating more than eight times a day.


There are several causes for frequent urination, which may include excessive fluid intake, caffeine/alcohol use, diabetes, diuretic use, urinary tract infection, enlarged prostate, overactive bladder, pregnancy, previous stroke and neurological disorders.








GALLSTONES


Gallstones are the solid masses or stones made of cholesterol or bilirubin, which form in the

gallbladder or bile ducts.


GASTROCOLIC REFLEX


Gastrocolic reflex is an increase of muscle movement in the gastrointestinal tract, when food enters an empty stomach.  This may give rise to an urge to have a bowel movement right away after eating.


GASTROENTEROLOGIST


A gastroenterologist is a doctor, who specializes in digestive diseases.


GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT


The gastrointestinal tract is the large, muscular tube, which extends from the mouth to the anus, where the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food.  The gastrointestinal tract is also called the alimentary canal or digestive tract.


GI TRACT


See Gastrointestinal Tract.


GRANULOMAS


A granuloma is a small, reddish, raised area or nodule on the stoma, or on the peristomal skin.  It can be commonly caused by local irritation from stoma appliances, suture sites and/or leakage of effluent.


GRANULOMATOUS COLITIS


See Crohn’s Disease.









HAEMORRHOIDS


Haemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels in and around the anus and lower rectum.  Continual straining to have a bowel movement causes them to stretch and swell.  They cause itching, pain, and

sometimes bleeding.


HARTMANN’S POUCH


A Hartmann’s Pouch is a surgical option for a temporary ileostomy or colostomy.  The intestine is severed, and the functional end is brought through the abdominal wall as a stoma, which discharges stool.  The remaining end (which leads to the anus) can be stitched or stapled shut, and left in the abdomen as a blind-end Hartmann’s Pouch.  The surgical method is called a Hartmann’s Procedure.


HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL


A healthcare professional is a term, which is used to describe a variety of people involved in health

care – consultant, specialist, doctor, nurse, stoma care nurse, pharmacist, etc.


HEARTBURN


See Indigestion.


HEPATITIS


Hepatitis is an irritation of the liver, which sometimes causes permanent damage.  Hepatitis may be caused by viruses, medicines or alcohol.  Hepatitis has the following forms:























HERNIA


A hernia is the part of an internal organ, which pushes through an opening in the organ’s wall.  Most hernias occur in the abdominal area.  


See Hiatus Hernia and Parastomal Hernia.


HIATUS HERNIA


A hiatus hernia is a small opening in the diaphragm, which allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest.  This causes heartburn from the stomach acid flowing back up through the opening.


HIGH OUTPUT OSTOMY


A high output ostomy is when an ostomate has more than two litres (8 cups) of fluid from the ostomy in a twenty-four-hour period.  Usually, the output is very watery and needs to be emptied eight to ten times or more a day.  The output may be very difficult to control, and often can cause leaks.


HIRSCHSPRUNG’S DISEASE


Hirschsprung’s Disease is a birth defect in which some nerve cells are lacking in the large intestine.  These nerves normally assist the bowel’s movement of stool.  The result is that the intestine cannot

move stool through, so the intestine gets blocked, causing the abdomen to swell.


HYDROCOLLOIDS


Hydrocolloids are used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry, and are an important ingredient in the manufacturing of stoma skin barriers.  ‘Hydro’ means water and ‘colloid’ means stable solution of particles in water.  The particles absorb water and form a gel.


HYPERALIMENTATION


See Parenteral Nutrition.


HYPERPLASIA


Hyperplasia is a ‘warty’ looking, grey thickening of skin, which can occur around a urostomy.  It is

caused by alkaline urine, incorrectly-fitted skin barrier or pouch, and/or lack of night drainage system.


It is also known as Epidermal Hyperplasia.
























Hepatitis A


Hepatitis B







Hepatitis C






Hepatitis D (Delta)



Hepatitis E

A virus most often spread by unclean food and water.


A virus commonly spread by sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, or from mother to newborn at birth.  Another way it spreads is by using a needle, which was used by an infected person.  Hepatitis B is more common, and much more easily spread than the AIDS virus, and may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.


A virus spread by blood transfusion, and possibly by sexual intercourse, or sharing needles with infected people.  Hepatitis C may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.  Hepatitis C used to be called non-A, non-B hepatitis.


A virus, which occurs mostly in people, who take illegal drugs by using needles.  Only people, who have hepatitis B, can get hepatitis D.


A virus spread mostly through unclean water.  This type of hepatitis is common in developing countries.





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