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DISCLAIMER


100% accuracy at time of writing cannot be guaranteed.  A listing in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and does not mean it is an endorsement.  All companies listed are tried at the reader’s own risk.  All information provided is intended as a supplement to any professional help already

given.  Before acting on suggestions from anyone, ostomates are advised to check with a doctor or stoma care nurse that the course of action is suitable

for them. Whilst every care is taken, the author will not be held responsible.

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GLOSSARY

I

IBD


See Inflammatory Bowel Disease.


IBS


See Irritable Bowel Syndrome.


IC


See Interstitial Cystitis.


ILEAL


Ileal means that it is related to the ileum, the lowest end of the small intestine.  


ILEAL CONDUIT


An ileal conduit is a way of diverting urine outside of the body, when the urinary bladder has been removed or bypassed.  A segment of ileum (small bowel) is used as a conduit (channel) to divert

urine. The urine will pass through this conduit, and out of a stoma in the abdomen. The conduit is not

a reservoir for urine.


An ileal conduit is often referred to as a urostomy.  


ILEAL LOOP


See Ileal Conduit.  


ILEAL POUCH


See Ileoanal Reservoir.  


ILEAL POUCH ANAL ANASTOMOSIS


See Ileoanal Reservoir.


ILEITIS


See Crohn’s Disease.  


ILEOANAL


Ileoanal relates to the joining of the small bowel to the sphincter at the anus.


ILEOANAL ANASTOMOSIS


See Ileoanal Pull-Through and Ileoanal Reservoir.


ILEOANAL POUCH


See Ileoanal Reservoir.


ILEOANAL PULL-THROUGH


Ileoanal pull-through is an operation to remove the colon and inner lining of the rectum.  The outer muscle of the rectum is not touched.  The bottom end of the small intestine (ileum) is pulled through the remaining rectum, and joined to the anus.  The last part of the ileum is usually made into a reservoir, since without a reservoir, the frequency and looseness of stool may cause major management problems for most patients.  Stool passes through the anus, and no permanent stoma or stoma appliance is necessary.  A patient usually has a temporary ileostomy, while the reservoir heals.


ILEOANAL RESERVOIR


An ileoanal reservoir is an alternative to a permanent ileostomy.  Technically, it is not an ostomy, since there is no stoma.  In this procedure, the colon and most of the rectum are surgically removed, and an internal pouch is formed out of the terminal portion of the ileum in order to provide some storage area for stool.  An opening at the bottom of this pouch is attached to the anus in order to restore the continuity of the bowel function.  The muscle of the rectum is left in place, so the stool in the pouch does not leak out of the anus.


The operation may be completed in two stages.  People, who have this surgery, are able to control their bowel movements, and it is not necessary for them to wear an appliance.


Once the surgery is complete, it is important that the pouch remains free of waste materials for a few weeks so that it can heal.  To facilitate healing in the post-operative period, the patient may require a temporary loop ileostomy.  The loop ileostomy allows waste to pass through the stoma, without affecting the pouch. Once the pouch is healed, the small intestine is connected to the pouch, allowing the stoma to heal.


An ileoanal reservoir is also called ileoanal anastomosis, ileoanal pull-through, pelvic pouch and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA).


Depending on how the ileum is looped before it is cut, folded and stitched to make the pouch, the reservoir may also be called a J-Pouch, S-Pouch or W-Pouch.


ILEOCAECAL VALVE


An ileocecal valve is a valve, which connects the lower part of the small intestine and the upper part of the large intestine (ileum and caecum).  The valve controls the flow of fluid in the intestines and prevents back flow.


ILEOCOLITIS


Ileocolitis is irritation of the lower part of the small intestine (ileum) and colon.


ILEORECTAL ANASTOMOSIS


Ileorectal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the colon is removed, and the ileum is attached directly to the rectum.  Sometimes, this operation is carried out as a treatment for ulcerative colitis.


ILEOSTOMY


An ileostomy is a surgically-created, opening in the abdomen to provide an alternative way for food wastes to leave the body.  The surgeon makes a small opening in the abdomen, called a stoma.   The ileum is brought through the abdominal wall, everted to form a spout and sutured to the skin.  The operation is usually carried out when the colon is damaged, or if it has to be removed, and must be bypassed.  Ileostomies may be temporary or permanent, and may involve removal of all or part of the entire colon.


The output or consistency will vary depending on the location of the stoma within the small bowel.  An external stoma appliance is used to collect waste products.


The stoma does not possess any nerve endings.  Therefore any trauma to the stoma will be painless,

but it could be harmful, e.g. injury from an ill-fitting stoma appliance.


See Continent Ileostomy, Conventional Ileostomy and Loop Ileostomy.


ILEOSTOMY BLOCKAGE


An ileostomy may stop functioning due to a blockage caused by adhesions or undigested food.  The patient may experience abdominal pain, distension, nausea and vomiting.  There will be minimal or no output from the stoma.


Management will include fluids only, relaxation and abdominal massage.  A food blockage will in most cases resolve spontaneously, but if symptoms persist the stoma patient may require admission to hospital for conservative or surgical treatment.


ILEOSTOMY ENEMA


An ileostomy enema is small bowel irrigation of the stoma with water.


ILEOSTOMY FUNCTION


An ileostomy generally begins to function within the first 48-72 hours after surgery.  Over a period of days or weeks, following surgery, the proximal small bowel increases fluid absorption.  There is a gradual reduction in the volume of output, and a thickening of the stool will occur.  This may vary according to the amounts and type of food and drink consumed.


An ileostomy will function intermittently throughout the day.


The effluent from an ileostomy contains enzymes, and if in contact with the peristomal skin, excoriation and soreness will occur.


ILEOSTOMY POUCH


An ileostomy pouch can be either open-ended, requiring a closing device (traditionally a clamp or clip), or closed and sealed at the bottom.  Open-ended pouches are called drainable, and are left attached to the body, whilst emptying.  Closed-end pouches are most commonly used by ileostomates, who have regular elimination patterns.  Closed-end pouches are usually discarded after one use.


See Pouch.  


ILEOSTOMY SUPPLIES


Ileostomy supplies are products used by stoma patients, who have an ileostomy.




ILEUM


The ileum is the lowest part of the small intestine, where the small and large intestines connect.


IMPERFORATE ANUS


An imperforate anus is a birth defect, where the rectum is not connected to the anus.  As a result, the bowel has no outlet from the body.  


INCISION


An incision is a cut made in the skin during a surgical procedure.  


INCONTINENCE


Incontinence is the inability to control the passage of urine or stool (faeces).


INCONTINENCE - BOWEL


See Bowel Incontinence.


INCONTINENCE - URINARY


See Urinary Incontinence.


INDIANA POUCH


See Continent Urostomy.


INDIGESTION


Indigestion is discomfort or pain in the digestive system.  It differs from person to person, and is

related to diet, physical and psychological circumstances.  It is also called heartburn.


INFECTION


An infection is classed as an invasion of the body by various agents (e.g. bacteria, fungus, protozoa, viruses, worms), and the body’s reaction to them or their toxins.  Infections are sub clinical until they affect a patient’s health, when they then become infectious diseases or conditions.


Infection can be local (e.g. an abscess), confined to one body system (e.g. pneumonia in the lungs), or generalized (e.g. septicaemia).  Infectious agents can enter the body by inhalation, via the gastrointestinal tract, or wound contamination.


The body responds with a rise in leukocytes, production of antibodies or antitoxins, and often a rise in temperature.


See Parastomal Infection.


INFLAMMATION


Inflammation is the body's reaction to infection, irritation or other injury.  The symptoms include redness, warmth, swelling, pain and impaired function.


INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE


Inflammatory Bowel Disease is a long-lasting problem, which causes irritation and ulcers in the GI tract.  Inflammatory bowel disease is the collective term for Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.


Inflammatory bowel disease is not another acronym for irritable bowel syndrome, and should not be confused as such.


INTERMITTENT CATHETERISATION


Intermittent catheterisation is a technique, which is used by people, who are unable to empty their bladder, or with urinary incontinence, so that they can empty the bladder at regular intervals, by inserting a catheter into the bladder, either via the urethra or continent diversion.


INTERNAL POUCH


An internal pouch is any form of surgically-reconstructed, internal pouch or reservoir for the purpose of evacuation or elimination.


INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS


Interstitial cystitis is an inflammatory condition of the bladder, leading to significant pelvic pain and frequency of urination, where no infection is found.


INTESTINAL FLORA


Intestinal flora is the bacteria, yeasts and fungi, which grow normally in the intestines.


INTESTINAL MUCOSA


Intestinal mucosa is the surface lining of the intestines, where the cells absorb nutrients.


INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM


An intravenous pyelogram is a special x-ray of the urinary tract.  Medicine is injected into the vein, so that the urinary tract will show up clearly on the x-ray.


See IVP and Excetory Urography.  


IPAA


See Ileoanal Reservoir and Ileoanal Pull Through.  


IRRIGATION


Irrigation is a method of management for colostomates only.   A prescribed volume of water is instilled through the stoma to flush out stool from the colon, and to provide some regulation over bowel movements.  This requires a special irrigation system, consisting of an irrigation bag with a connecting tube (or catheter), a stoma cone and an irrigation sleeve.  Sometimes, a special lubricant is used on the stoma in preparation for irrigation.


The procedure offers a stoma patient an alternative to wearing a colostomy pouch on a regular basis.  The user can then wear a specially-designed stoma cap, or a one/two-piece system, which simply covers and protects the stoma.


Irrigation is not an option for every stoma patient, as some medical conditions or types of stoma, mean that this process is unsuitable.  If a stoma patient is interested in irrigating and wants to learn more, it is very important to consult a stoma care nurse prior to irrigating.


IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME


Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a functional bowel disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.  Nerves, which control the muscles in the GI tract, are too active.  The GI tract becomes sensitive to food, stool, gas and stress.  This causes recurrent abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating and is accompanied by alterations in bowel function, diarrhoea, constipation or a combination of both, typically over months or years.


It is also called spastic colon or mucous colitis.


Irritable bowel syndrome is not another acronym for inflammatory bowel disease, and should not be confused as such.


IRRITATION


An irritation is any inflammation or soreness.  In ostomy care, it usually refers to the skin.  A skin irritation may be seen as skin that is reddened, open, and/or moist.


IVP


See Intravenous Pyelogram.
































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